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Sunday, March 25, 2012
Student’s Learning Achievement with Traditional Assessment and
Portfolio Assessment


A B S T R A C T

Isabella, Paramita. 2008. A Thesis. English Study Program of Language and Arts Department. Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Jambi University. The First Advisor, Drs. Yon Adlis, M.Pd. The Second Advisor, Drs. Marzul Hidayat, M.A.


Traditionally, assessment is held at the conclusion of a unit of study. Certain grade is used to decide the understanding degree of the students to the subject. Traditional assessment includes multiple-choice questions and asking students to respond the questions with short answers.
Portfolio assessment is a purposeful collection of student work that tells the story of the student’s effort, progress, or achievement in given areas. Portfolio can be viewed as a systematic and organized collection of evidence used by the teacher and student to monitor the growth of student’s knowledge, skills, and attitudes in a specific content area. The indicators of portfolio assessment are daily test result, structured tasks, anecdotal record, and report of the student’s activity out of school.
The purposes of this research are to describe the student’s learning achievement with traditional assessment and portfolio assessment, and then find out the difference between the student’s learning achievement with traditional assessment and portfolio assessment.
The design of this research is ex post facto. The population is the 1st class of students of SMP 4 Jambi.  In selecting the sample is used clustered random sampling. The students of class 1A and 1B of SMP 4 Jambi are chosen as the sample. The data collection is done by observation and collecting the documentation. T-test is used to analysis the difference between the students’ learning achievement with traditional assessment and portfolio assessment
Based on the analysis, the researcher finds that mean of the class with traditional assessment is 60.00 and mean of the class with portfolio assessment is 70.31. By using t-test at the level of significance (a) 0.05, is got tratio is bigger than ttable, that is tratio = 2.833  > ttable = 1.992, it shows that there is a significant difference between the students’ learning achievement with traditional assessment and portfolio assessment.
It can be concluded that the student learning achievement with portfolio assessment is better than the student learning achievement with traditional assessment at the level of believe 95%. But portfolio assessment is better implemented in small class because teacher will be easier in managing the class.
ACKOWLEDGEMENTS


Bismillahirrohmanirrohim

Praise be upon to Allah SWT: The Lord of the Universe, that under his blessing and great guidance, I eventually able to complete this thesis as one of the requirements of achieving the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan at English Study Program, Language and Arts Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education of Jambi University.
In accomplishing this thesis, I deservedly would like to acknowledge my deepest appreciation to the following persons who have helped and supported me to finish my thesis:
1.       Drs. Yon Adlis, M.Pd, as the first supervisor who has given his charm ideas, suggestion and many other things which were useful in completing this thesis.
2.       Drs. Marzul Hidayat, M.A., as the second supervisor who has given his correction, beneficial opinion and encouragement in the process of writing this thesis. He also gives his warm support and advises me to be more patient on finishing this thesis.
3.       Drs. Syahrial, M.Ed,  Dra. Rosinta Norawati, M.A., and Dra. Yelia, M.A. as the examiners team in the seminar of thesis proposal and in the thesis examination., for their time, contribution of thoughtful and ideas toward the development of this thesis.
4.      Drs. Makmur, M.Hum as the academic advisor who has guided during the study in the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education.
5.      All of English Study Program lecturers who had taught during the study in the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education.
6.      All of her classmates in English Department. Thanks for the nice relation and enjoy class.
I would like to express my appreciation and faithful gratitude to my beloved mom, dad, brother and sisters, and also my beloved candidate husband, who voluntary spend their endless love and time for praying, take care of me and support me to finish writing this thesis.
Finally, researcher hopes the readers could contribute developmental criticism and suggestion to improve this thesis.


                                                                       The Researcher
                                                          
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION




1.1    Background of the Research
Language learning is important for human’s social development. As a language which is used by more than a half of population in the world, English holds the key as international language. English is a tool of communication among peoples of the world to get trade, social-cultural, science, and technology goals. Moreover, English competence is important in career development, therefore students need to understand and use English to improve their confidence to face global competition.
English as a formal subject is given to junior high school (SMP) level, which the goals are translated as follows: “The goals of teaching and learning English for this level are improving the four English skills. They are the mastery of the receptive skills (reading and listening) and the mastery of the productive skills (speaking and writing), within a specified word level and relevant grammatical structures and notions, in the context of the specified themes which are enclosed for junior high school (SMP) students” (Balitbang Depdiknas, 2002:42).
The fact shows that the result of teaching learning English is still low. Somantri said (2003) that there can be a wonder about the condition of the student’s English ability. The students have learned English from the first-grade of junior high school until senior high school, but most of them still cannot use English as tool of communication. Zamroni in Somantri (2003) found that it not only happened to the students who have score below five, but the students who have score over eight in junior high school can not use English in real communication in their level. Besides, their receptive skills are also below the expectation. For example, the students who have graduated from senior high school, they still find difficulty in reading English literatures (Balitbang Depdiknas, 2002:1).
These failures are influenced by many factors. According to Zamroni in Somantri (2003), it happens because of the education system at school just transfer the dead knowledge where the knowledge is separated from the application. Teachers teach materials that will be tested. The goal is that the students get good score in the final test. While Ali in Ant-O2 (2005) argues that the low of the students quality in teaching and learning English happens because the students are used to memorizing and doing multiple choice assignment. Both of arguments above show that the process of teaching and learning English is not so support the improvement of life skills. Students can get good score in the final test and they can memorize the theory well but they cannot use English in real communication.
Assessment is one of important thing that has important role in education. The importance of assessment in education is stated by Hughes (1989) who says that the proper relationship between teaching and assessment is partnership. By assessment process teacher can discover how far students have achieved the objectives of a course of study. Teacher also can use the result of assessment to analyze which material that should be explained again and which instruments that should be repaired. Besides, assessment is useful for the students to motivate in teaching learning process. 
Based on the earlier observation, researcher finds that most of teachers still use traditional assessment. The students are given some tasks in the form of multiple choice, do the LKS, practice a dialog in textbook and another task, which make the students as a passive subject. Traditional assessment includes multiple-choice questions and asking students to respond questions with short answers. Many kinds of task are given in order the students can respond the questions with correct answers in the final test. The product of learning is more emphasized then the process it self. Teacher gives quizzes and tests to assess cognitive aspect only. This kind of assessment is just recall student’s memorization.
In traditional assessment process, teachers give less attention and rarely to assess the student’s work. It brings the students become lack of attention toward their error in finishing their work. According to Kasiram (1984:10), learning will be on the decline if the students do not know the result of their work. The students want to know feedback of their effort in doing the work as a motivation in learning process. Dimyati and Mudjiono (2002:48) stated that students would be more motivated in learning if the students know the result of their work as a feedback. 
Under the government policy, the Ministry of National Education develops new curriculum to improve the education quality that is Competency Based Curriculum. The success of Competency Based Curriculum may be consider successfully if followed by the change of teaching and learning strategy at class, the choosing of media, and the choosing of assessment process. (Balitbang Depdiknas, 2002:1). Assessment processes in Competency Based Curriculum are
more varies. One of them is Portfolio Assessment.
Arter & Spandel (in Luitel, 2002) state the notion of portfolio. The literary meaning of the term ‘portfolio’ is a collection of the past work. However, in the context of assessment, portfolio does not represent only a mere collection of the past work. The Northwest Evaluation Association urges that the portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that tells the story of the student’s effort, progress, or achievement in given areas. Portfolio can be viewed as a systematic and organized collection of evidence used by the teacher and student to monitor the growth of student’s knowledge, skills, and attitudes in a specific content area.
The indicators of portfolio assessment are daily test result, structured tasks, anecdotal record, and report of the student’s activity out of school (Budimansyah, 2002: 108). These indicators are put on the list and documented in a file.  From the collection, teacher assesses skill of the students. Teacher turns the students to see their ability in learning by using portfolio and turns the students to be careful in doing the work, pay attention to the error in their work and correct the error.
Based on the background, researcher interested in studying the student’s learning achievement in the classes which use traditional assessment and portfolio assessment. Researcher was conducting this study on the students of SMP 4 Jambi, with the title “Student’s Learning Achievement with Traditional Assessment and Portfolio Assessment”.
1.2    Formulation of the Problems
The problems of this research are:
(1)     How is the student’s learning achievement with traditional assessment?
(2)     How is the student’s learning achievement with portfolio assessment?
(3)     How is the difference between the student’s learning achievement with traditional assessment and portfolio assessment?

1.3    Objectives of the Research
Based on the research questions above, the main purposes of this research are to find out the following:
(1)     To describe the student’s learning achievement with traditional assessment.
(2)     To describe the student’s learning achievement with portfolio assessment.
(3)      To find out the difference between the student’s learning achievement with traditional assessment and portfolio assessment.

1.4    Significance of the Research
The result of this research might be significant for education field, in the form of giving information to the teachers and the students about how portfolio is implemented at school especially at SMP 4 Jambi. Furthermore, it might be able to help the teachers and the students understand benefits and weakness of using portfolio assessment. It also can be a reference for further research, especially a research about portfolio assessment.


1.5    The Limitation of the Research
This research is limited to the following problems:
(1)     The lesson that will be studied in this research is English subject for the 1st semester of the 1st Class at SLTPN 4 Jambi.
(2)     The subjects who are involved at this research are the students of the 1st class who still use traditional assessment and also the students who have used portfolio assessment at SLTPN 4 Jambi.
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

In order to sharpen the theoretical framework of this study, this chapter is devoted to review some relevant theories and studies concerning with teaching and learning process, traditional assessment, and portfolio assessment.

2.1    Teaching and Learning Process
Winkel (1989: 36) defines learning as a psychology activity that holds in active interaction with the environment, which produces many changes of knowledge, skills, and attitude. While, according to Slameto (1995: 2), psychologically, learning is a changing process as a result of the interaction with the environment to fulfil the needs in life. The changing is not only in increasing knowledge, but also skill, attitudes, the way of thinking, interest, adaptation, and the others. Learning is an activity done by everyone that can be hold anywhere and anytime.
From those definitions, apparently, learning is an activity done by human being as an effort to get knowledge (cognitive), to create attitudes (affective), and to raise concept and skills (psychomotor) as a result of the interaction with the environment. In learning process, the dominant activity is the interaction between teacher and the students (Sardiman, 1986:170).
According to Sudjana (in Djamarah, 1995: 45), the same as learning, teaching is a process. There are processes of controlling, organizing, motivating, guiding, facilitating, and giving feedback to the students in process teaching and learning. Teaching process is not only putting premium on product, but also on learning process. So, teacher needs evaluation’s instrument that can be used to assess all of students’ learning process step by step.

2.2      Traditional Assessment
Traditionally, assessment is held at the end of teaching-learning process. Its purpose is to know whether the students have understood the subject that is learned or not. Certain grade is used to decide the understanding degree of the students to the subject. If the students get a good grade at the test, it means that they passed. On the contrary, they didn’t pass if they get bad grade. This notion is the traditional notion of assessment (Budimansyah, 2002).
According to Solomon (2004), the traditional purpose of assessment is to summarize student knowledge and progress at the conclusion of a unit of study. Traditional assessment includes multiple-choice questions and asking students to respond the questions with short answers.
From those notions of assessment, it is clear that traditional purpose of teaching and learning process is in order the students can respond the questions with correct answers. The product of learning is more emphasized then the process it self. Teacher gives quizzes and tests to assess cognitive aspect only. This kind of assessment is just recall students’ memorization. This is seldom requiring students to apply what they know and can do in real-life situations. It encourages instruction of less important skills and passive learning.

Table 2.1 bellow represents differences between Traditional Assessment and Portfolio Assessment (Brown, 2004:13).
Table 2.1   Traditional and Portfolio Assessment
Traditional Assessment
Portfolio Assessment
One-shot, standardized exams
Timed, multiple-choice format
Decontextualized test items
Scores suffice for feedback
Norm-referenced scores
Focus on the “right” answer
Summative
Oriented on product
Non-interactive performance
Fosters extrinsic motivation
Continuous long-term assessment
Untimed, free-response format
Contextualized communicative tasks
Individualized feedback
Criterion-referenced scores
Open-ended, creative answers
Formative
Oriented to process
Interactive performance
Fosters intrinsic motivation


2.3      Strength of Traditional Assessment
Although alternative forms of assessment are currently popular, traditional assessment should not necessary be eliminated by other type of assessment because it do have strength over other forms of assessment. According to Watson and Taylor (1994), traditional tests are less time consuming than most other forms of assessment, even when they include higher level thinking items. It is also relatively easy to validate and determine internal consistency for traditional multiple choice test. Brown and Shavelson (in Watson and Taylor, 1994) say that traditional tests are valid for testing students’ factual knowledge.

2.4      Weakness of Traditional Assessment
The weakness of traditional assessment are described by Applebee (in Luitel, 2002) that the traditional notion of assessment cannot assess the student learning process realistically because it views the assessment as the notion of knowledge-out-of-action. It tends to prompt the students to overcome with basic skills only. Although basic skills may be important goals of education, they are often over-emphasized in an effort to raise test scores. Basic skills and minimum competencies become the overarching goal of schools and teachers as accountability and minimum competency exams concentrate on these areas (Bond, 1995).
In traditional assessment process, teachers give less attention and rarely to assess the student’s work in every meeting. It brings the students become lack of attention toward their error in finishing their work. According to Kasiram (1984:10), learning will be on the decline if the students do not know the result of their work. The students want to know feedback of their effort in doing the work as a motivation in learning process. Dimyati and Mudjiono (2002:48) stated that students would be more motivated in learning if the students know the result of their work as a feedback. 

2.5      Portfolio Assessment
There are many theorists who give definition about portfolio. According to Yasin (2001), in the beginning, portfolio is only collection of task, learning experience, exhibition, and assessment of own work result in art areas. From the collection, teacher assesses painting skill of the students. So that assessment result is not only from final test. Final test sometime is not shows the student’s ability because the students’ work at the final test can be influenced by the situation and condition at the time, for example the students is in pain or less concentration, so they can’t make good work.
Paulson et all in  Kemp and Toperoff (1998) give definition about portfolio:
Portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that exhibits the student’s efforts, progress, and achievements in one or more areas. The collection must include student participation in selecting contents, the criteria for selection, the criteria for judging merit, and evidence of student self-reflection.

In this way a portfolio is a living, growing collection of a student’s work. Each addition is carefully selected by the student for a specific reason which he will explain. The overall purpose of the portfolio is to enable the student to demonstrate to others learning and progress. The greatest value of portfolio is that, in building them, students become active participants in the learning process and its assessment.
Arter & Spandel in Luitel (2002) state the notion of portfolio. The literary meaning of the term ‘portfolio’ is a collection of the past work. However, in the context of assessment, portfolio does not represent only a mere collection of the past work. The Northwest Evaluation Association urges that the portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that tells the story of the student’s effort, progress, or achievement in given areas. According to Simon and Forgette-Giroux in Luitel (2002), the portfolio is a cumulative and ongoing collection of entries that are selected following a given framework, and reflected upon by the student, to assess his/her development of a specific but complex competency. Similarly, portfolio is also known as a record of the child’s process of learning that portrays
the learner’s style of thinking, questioning, analysis, production, creation, and the like (Grace, in Luitel, 2002). Commonly speaking, the portfolio can be viewed as a systematic and organized collection of evidence used by the teacher and student to monitor the growth of student’s knowledge, skills, and attitudes in a specific content area.
According to Genesee and Upshur (in Brown, 2004:256), a portfolio is a purposeful collection of students’ work that demonstrates their efforts, progress, and achievements in given areas. Portfolios include materials such as: essays and compositions in draft and final forms; reports, project outlines; poetry and creative prose; artwork, photos, newspaper or magazine clippings; audio and/or video recording of representations or demonstrations; journals, diaries, and other personal reflections; test, test scores, and written homework exercises; notes on lectures; and self and peer-assessments (comments, evaluation, and checklists).
It can be summarized that portfolio is the collection of student work and documentation about the students learning progress (i.e., the students’ task, test, performance, and activity) regularly and continuously. Portfolio can be in form of the students’ work, the students’ answer to the teacher’s questions, anecdotal record of the students, report of the students’ activity, and the students’ composition or journal.

2.5.1 Basic Principle of Assessment in Portfolio Assessment Model
Portfolio assessment model relates to a number of assessment basic principles (Budimansyah, 2002). The assessment basic principles are:
(1)   Principle of process and product assessment
Portfolio assessment model applies process and product of teaching and learning. The assessment of learning processes are got from anecdotal record about the students’ attitudes in learning, their enthusiastic, and many others. Another aspect of process assessment is assessing structured task from teacher whether the task is done well and seriously or not. Beside that, process assessment can be done by viewing the report of the students’ activity outside of school whether they have activity that supporting their learning process or not.
(2)   Principle of periodic and continual assessment
Assessment should be done periodic and continue. Periodic assessment is conducted to facilitate the organization of learning results. While the goal of continual assessment is to view the growth and development of the students’ learning experienced.
The examples of periodic assessment are having formative test and summative test, having structured task at the end of a chapter, having anecdotal record in every meeting, and having the report of student’s activity out of school once in a month. It is doing continually from the first meeting until the end.
(3)   Principle of fair assessment
In giving assessment should pay attention to individual differences. All of indicators in portfolio assessment are taken into consideration and each of them is giving score, so the result is describing the process. In other words, the student who has good learning experienced, he/she will have big opportunity to have success.
(4)   Principle of social implication assessment
By learning the students should come up with such asocial implication, that means meaningful for the others. Learning is not only get a good grade or pass the examination, but it should have implication toward the students’ attitudes and skills. Portfolio assessment is not limited in assess cognitive aspect, but also affective and psychomotor, involves social implication. This learning experience is functionally needed in real life in the future. To enter real life system is needed provisions, not only a mark or a piece of licensed.

2.5.2 Indicator of Portfolio Assessment
There is no standard form of portfolio assessment, but generally it must content cognitive, affective, and psychomotor area. Teacher can improve it according to the needs (Budimansyah, 2002: 118). From the indicators, teacher can make a result fairly.
Portfolio may be contains of two subfolders, they are subfolder of collection of the student’s works and subfolder of documentation of the students score during the learning process. Portfolio’s content can be varied based on the goal, level of the students, and kinds of activity at class.
Format of the assessment in portfolio for English subject that is used by the teacher in this research contains of:

1.      Documentation of Formative and Summative Test
Kind of Test
No
Date
Theme
Score
Teacher’s Sign
Note
FORMATIVE
1.
2.
3.
Etc.





SUMMATIVE







AVERAGE




Source: Budimansyah, 2002

2.      Documentation of Student’s Work
No.
Kinds of Task
Assessment’s Aspect
Score
Teacher’s Sign
Note
First
Revision
1.

Understanding: How well the student’s understanding toward the task




Argumentation: How well student’s argumentation in solving the problem
Explanation:
·   arranged well
·   written well
·   easy to understand
Information:
·   accurate
·   complete
·   important
2.

Understanding




Argumentation
Explanation
Information
Etc.

Understanding




Argumentation
Explanation
Information
Source: Budimansyah, 2002

Rusoni (2001) gives an example of rubric scoring that can be used for giving score to the student’s work:

Table 2.2 Portfolio Rubric Scoring
SCORE
DESCRIPTION
8,1 – 10
·      Student clearly understand about the task
·      Student can give perfect argumentation in finishing the task
·      Student can organize the explanation sharply
·      Student can give accurate, complete and important information
6,6 – 8,0
·      Student needs a little help to understand the task
·      Student can give good argumentation but still need a help
·      Student needs a help to organize the explanation
·      Student can give good information
5,6 – 6,5
·      The student needs enough help to understand the task
·      Student can give argumentation if there is a help
·      Student needs a help to organize the explanation
·      There are many fault in giving information
4,1 – 5,5
·      Student depends on teacher’s help to understand the task
·      Student need a help to give argumentation
·      Student always need a help to organize the explanation
·      The Information is lack and there are many fault
0 – 4,0
·      Student can not understand the task
·      Student can not give argumentation in finishing the task
·      Student can not organize the explanation
·      The information is wrong and has no correlation with the task

1 komentar:

{ safari } at: March 31, 2012 at 4:24 PM said...

wah, bagus juga blognya gan, kalo bisa diperbanyak lagi referensiya.

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